Java集合之HashSet

HashSet是一个没有重复元素的集合,HashSet是由HashMap实现的,不保证元素的顺序,并且HashSet允许使用null元素。HashSet不是线程安全的,当多个线程同时访问HashSet时,会出现问题,解决的方法是通过对自然封装该Set的对象执行同步操作来完成的。还可以使用Collections.synchronizedSet方法来包装set。
Set s=Collectins.synchronizedSet(new HashSet())。
HashSet的继承实现图:

从图中我们可以看出:
(1)HashSet继承于AbstractSet,并实现了Set接口。
(2)HashSet本质是一个没有重复元素的集合,通过HashMap实现的。HashSet中有一个HashMap的map变量,HashSet的操作函数,实际上都是通过map实现的。 HashSet是将值存储为HashMap的key


HashSet主要的函数:
boolean add(E object)
void clear()
Object clone()
boolean contains(Object object)
boolean isEmpty()
Iterator<E> iterator()
boolean remove(Object object)
int size()
HashSet的遍历方式:
(1)通过Iterator迭代方式遍历HashSet:首先根据iterator()获取HashSet的迭代器,迭代获取各个元素。
for(Iterator iterator = set.iterator();iterator.hasNext(); ) 
{
iterator.next();
}
(2)通过for-each遍历HashSet:首先通过toArray()获取HashSet的元素集合对应的数组,之后遍历数组获得元素。
String[] arr = (String[])set.toArray(new String[0]);
for (String str:arr)
{
System.out.printf("for each : %s\n", str);
}
HashSet示例代码:
public class Hello {

public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
// HashSet常用API
testHashSetAPIs() ;
}

/*
* HashSet除了iterator()add()之外的其它常用API
*/
private static void testHashSetAPIs() {
// 新建HashSet
HashSet set = new HashSet();
// 将元素添加到Set
set.add("a");
set.add("b");
set.add("c");
set.add("d");
set.add("e");
// 打印HashSet的实际大小
System.out.printf("size : %d\n", set.size());

// 判断HashSet是否包含某个值
System.out.printf("HashSet contains a :%s\n", set.contains("a"));
System.out.printf("HashSet contains g :%s\n", set.contains("g"));

// 删除HashSet中的“e”
set.remove("e");

// Set转换为数组
String[] arr = (String[])set.toArray(new String[0]);
for (String str:arr)
System.out.printf("for each : %s\n", str);

// 新建一个包含bcfHashSet
HashSet otherset = new HashSet();
otherset.add("b");
otherset.add("c");
otherset.add("f");
// 克隆一个removeset,内容和set一模一样
HashSet removeset = (HashSet)set.clone();
// 删除“removeset中,属于otherSet的元素
removeset.removeAll(otherset);
// 打印removeset
System.out.printf("removeset : %s\n", removeset);
// 克隆一个retainset,内容和set一模一样
HashSet retainset = (HashSet)set.clone();
// 保留“retainset中,属于otherSet的元素
retainset.retainAll(otherset);
// 打印retainset
System.out.printf("retainset : %s\n", retainset);
// 遍历HashSet
for(Iterator iterator = set.iterator();iterator.hasNext(); )
System.out.printf("iterator : %s\n", iterator.next());
// 清空HashSet
set.clear();
// 输出HashSet是否为空
System.out.printf("%s\n", set.isEmpty()?"set is empty":"set is not empty");
}
}
结果:
size : 5
HashSet contains a :true
HashSet contains g :false
for each : a
for each : b
for each : c
for each : d
removeset : [a, d]
retainset : [b, c]
iterator : a
iterator : b
iterator : c
iterator : d
set is empty

基于Java8的HashSet源码:

public class HashSet<E> extends AbstractSet<E>
        implements Set<E>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
    static final long serialVersionUID = -5024744406713321676L;
    private transient HashMap<E,Object> map;//HashSet是利用map来存储数据
    private static final Object PRESENT = new Object();

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * default initial capacity (16) and load factor (0.75).
     */
    //构造一个空Set
    public HashSet() {
        map = new HashMap<>();
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new set containing the elements in the specified
     * collection.  The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with default load factor
     * (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to contain the elements in
     * the specified collection.
     *
     * @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this set
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
     */
    //构造一个有初始参数c的构造函数
    public HashSet(Collection<? extends E> c) {
        map = new HashMap<>(Math.max((int) (c.size()/.75f) + 1, 16));
        addAll(c);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * the specified initial capacity and the specified load factor.
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash map
     * @param      loadFactor        the load factor of the hash map
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    //初始容量和加载因子的构造函数,其实是HashMap的构造函数
    public HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty set; the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance has
     * the specified initial capacity and default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash table
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero
     */
    //构造初始容量的构造函数
    public HashSet(int initialCapacity) {
        map = new HashMap<>(initialCapacity);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new, empty linked hash set.  (This package private
     * constructor is only used by LinkedHashSet.) The backing
     * HashMap instance is a LinkedHashMap with the specified initial
     * capacity and the specified load factor.
     *
     * @param      initialCapacity   the initial capacity of the hash map
     * @param      loadFactor        the load factor of the hash map
     * @param      dummy             ignored (distinguishes this
     *             constructor from other int, float constructor.)
     * @throws     IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
     *             than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    //构造一个空的LinkedHashMap
    HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor, boolean dummy) {
        map = new LinkedHashMap<>(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
    }

    /**
     * Returns an iterator over the elements in this set.  The elements
     * are returned in no particular order.
     *
     * @return an Iterator over the elements in this set
     * @see ConcurrentModificationException
     */
    //返回key的迭代
    public Iterator<E> iterator() {
        return map.keySet().iterator();
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of elements in this set (its cardinality).
     *
     * @return the number of elements in this set (its cardinality)
     */
    //大小
    public int size() {
        return map.size();
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this set contains no elements.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set contains no elements
     */
    //判断是否为空
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return map.isEmpty();
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this set contains the specified element.
     * More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this set
     * contains an element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
     *
     * @param o element whose presence in this set is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set contains the specified element
     */
    //判断是否包含某个对象
    public boolean contains(Object o) {
        return map.containsKey(o);
    }

    /**
     * Adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present.
     * More formally, adds the specified element <tt>e</tt> to this set if
     * this set contains no element <tt>e2</tt> such that
     * <tt>(e==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e2==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;e.equals(e2))</tt>.
     * If this set already contains the element, the call leaves the set
     * unchanged and returns <tt>false</tt>.
     *
     * @param e element to be added to this set
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this set did not already contain the specified
     * element
     */
    //增加对象
    public boolean add(E e) {
        return map.put(e, PRESENT)==null;
    }

    /**
     * Removes the specified element from this set if it is present.
     * More formally, removes an element <tt>e</tt> such that
     * <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>,
     * if this set contains such an element.  Returns <tt>true</tt> if
     * this set contained the element (or equivalently, if this set
     * changed as a result of the call).  (This set will not contain the
     * element once the call returns.)
     *
     * @param o object to be removed from this set, if present
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if the set contained the specified element
     */
    //删除对象
    public boolean remove(Object o) {
        return map.remove(o)==PRESENT;
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the elements from this set.
     * The set will be empty after this call returns.
     */
    //清空set
    public void clear() {
        map.clear();
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashSet</tt> instance: the elements
     * themselves are not cloned.
     *
     * @return a shallow copy of this set
     */
    //深拷贝
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public Object clone() {
        try {
            HashSet<E> newSet = (HashSet<E>) super.clone();
            newSet.map = (HashMap<E, Object>) map.clone();
            return newSet;
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            throw new InternalError(e);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of this <tt>HashSet</tt> instance to a stream (that is,
     * serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The capacity of the backing <tt>HashMap</tt> instance
     *             (int), and its load factor (float) are emitted, followed by
     *             the size of the set (the number of elements it contains)
     *             (int), followed by all of its elements (each an Object) in
     *             no particular order.
     */
    //序列化写
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
            throws java.io.IOException {
        // Write out any hidden serialization magic
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        // Write out HashMap capacity and load factor
        s.writeInt(map.capacity());
        s.writeFloat(map.loadFactor());

        // Write out size
        s.writeInt(map.size());

        // Write out all elements in the proper order.
        for (E e : map.keySet())
            s.writeObject(e);
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the <tt>HashSet</tt> instance from a stream (that is,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    //序列化读
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
            throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
        // Read in any hidden serialization magic
        s.defaultReadObject();

        // Read capacity and verify non-negative.
        int capacity = s.readInt();
        if (capacity < 0) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal capacity: " +
                    capacity);
        }

        // Read load factor and verify positive and non NaN.
        float loadFactor = s.readFloat();
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor)) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
                    loadFactor);
        }

        // Read size and verify non-negative.
        int size = s.readInt();
        if (size < 0) {
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal size: " +
                    size);
        }

        // Set the capacity according to the size and load factor ensuring that
        // the HashMap is at least 25% full but clamping to maximum capacity.
        capacity = (int) Math.min(size * Math.min(1 / loadFactor, 4.0f),
                HashMap.MAXIMUM_CAPACITY);

        // Create backing HashMap
        map = (((HashSet<?>)this) instanceof LinkedHashSet ?
                new LinkedHashMap<E,Object>(capacity, loadFactor) :
                new HashMap<E,Object>(capacity, loadFactor));

        // Read in all elements in the proper order.
        for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
            @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
            E e = (E) s.readObject();
            map.put(e, PRESENT);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
     * and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
     * set.
     *
     * <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED} and
     * {@link Spliterator#DISTINCT}.  Overriding implementations should document
     * the reporting of additional characteristic values.
     *
     * @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this set
     * @since 1.8
     */
    public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
        return new HashMap.KeySpliterator<E,Object>(map, 0, -1, 0, 0);
    }
}

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